Research Report
March 2007

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Versi Bahasa Indonesia

Improving the Business Climate in NTT: 
The Case of Agriculture Trade in West Timor

Widjajanti I. Suharyo, Nina Toyamah, Adri Poesoro,
Bambang Sulaksono, Syaikhu Usman, Vita Febriany

ABSTRACT

Efforts to improve the business climate in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Province are still facing significant obstacles. Moreover, a healthy business climate is needed to create conditions conducive to hastening development, increasing the employment field, and adding to local revenue. 

In June-August 2006, SMERU conducted a study of the business climate in NTT, concentrating on four districts and one city in West Timor. The study aims to identify various government policies at the central, provincial, and district/city level, which are directly and indirectly related to market structure, the flow of goods, fee structures, and prices received by producers and traders of agricultural products. The study also examines the impact of various agricultural product charges on provincial and district/city local revenue. The information and data was gathered from various respondents, including producers (farmers, livestock producers, fishermen, and home industry operators); traders (intermediate traders to exporters); as well as relevant government offices and agencies. 

The main finding of the research is that district/city local governments in West Timor are still attempting to increase local revenue by imposing various charges on the trade of agricultural commodities, although the total charges are currently lower than the period prior to 1997. Forestry products and large livestock (mainly cattle) attract the most charges. The study made several other findings. Firstly, in an effort to avoid a central government regulation that limits the total charges, the NTT local government has endeavored to reinvent charges as third party contributions or administration fees. Secondly, although the impact of official charges on the local budget (APBD) is relatively small, it can trigger the emergence of various unofficial charges, or bribes. Thirdly, agricultural producers generally have small-scale enterprises and weak bargaining powers as selling prices are still determined by several big inter-island traders—thus forming a monopsony environment. 

Key words: business climate; charges; commodities; agriculture; local government; permits

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF BOXES
LIST OF APPENDICES
ABBREVIATIONS
GLOSSARY
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background
B. Objective
C. Methodology
D. Report Structure

II. GENERAL FEATURES OF NTT AND THE WEST TIMOR REGION

A. Regional Administration
B. Natural Conditions and Infrastructure
C. Human Resources and Community Welfare Conditions
D. Regional Economic Conditions

III. TRADE REGULATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

A. National Deregulation Policy and Local Government Responses

1. 1997–1999
2. 2000–Now

B. Regulations on Agricultural Product Marketing in West Timor

1. General Regulations on Business and Trade
2. Agricultural Product Trade Regulations

a. Forestry Commodities
b. Livestock Commodities
c. Fishery Commodities
d. Plantation and Food Crop Commodities
e. Agro-Industrial Products

IV. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT MARKETING

A. Marketing Channels and the Role of the Market in Agricultural Product Marketing
B. Market Structure and Price Determination

V. THE IMPACT OF CHARGES ON LOCAL REVENUE AND THE BUSINESS CLIMATE

A. Impacts on Local Government Revenue
B. Impacts on the Business Climate

VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
LIST OF REFERENCES
APPENDICES


Iklim Usaha di Provinsi NTT: 
Kasus Perdagangan Hasil Pertanian di Timor Barat

Widjajanti I. Suharyo, Nina Toyamah, Adri Poesoro,
Bambang Sulaksono, Syaikhu Usman, Vita Febriany

ABSTRAK

Upaya perbaikan iklim usaha di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) masih menghadapi cukup banyak kendala. Padahal, iklim usaha yang sehat diperlukan untuk menciptakan kondisi yang mendukung percepatan pembangunan, peningkatan lapangan kerja, dan pertumbuhan pendapatan daerah. 

Pada Juni-Agustus 2006, SMERU melakukan studi iklim usaha di Provinsi NTT di empat kabupaten dan satu kota di Timor Barat. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi berbagai kebijakan pemerintah baik pusat, propinsi, maupun kabupaten/kota yang terkait langsung maupun tidak langsung terhadap struktur pasar, aliran barang, struktur biaya, serta harga yang diterima produsen dan pedagang produk hasil pertanian. Dalam studi ini juga dikaji dampak berbagai bentuk pungutan produk pertanian terhadap penerimaan daerah provinsi dan kabupaten/kota. Informasi dan data dikumpulkan dari berbagai responden, meliputi produsen (petani, peternak, nelayan, pengusaha industri rumah tangga); pedagang (pedagang pengumpul sampai eksportir); serta dinas dan instansi terkait. 

Temuan utama dalam penelitian ini adalah bahwa pemda kabupaten/kota di Timor Barat masih berupaya meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah (PAD) melalui pengenaan berbagai pungutan terhadap perdagangan komoditas hasil pertanian, meskipun jumlah pungutan sudah lebih sedikit dibandingkan pada periode sebelum 1997. Pungutan terbanyak dikenakan terhadap hasil hutan dan ternak besar (terutama sapi). Di samping itu, ada beberapa temuan lainnya. Pertama, adanya upaya Pemda NTT untuk mengubah bentuk pungutan menjadi sumbangan pihak ketiga atau biaya administrasi, dengan tujuan menghindari peraturan Pemerintah Pusat yang membatasi jumlah pungutan. Kedua, bahwa dampak pungutan resmi terhadap Anggaran Pendapatan Belanja Daerah (APBD) relatif sangat kecil, akan tetapi bisa memicu timbulnya pungutan tidak resmi (pungli). Ketiga, bahwa petani produsen umumnya memiliki skala usaha yang kecil dengan posisi tawar yang rendah, harga jual masih ditentukan oleh beberapa pedagang besar antarpulau sehingga terbentuk struktur pasar monopsoni alamiah. 

Kata kunci: iklim usaha; pungutan; komoditas; pertanian; pemerintah daerah; izin

DAFTAR ISI

UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH
ABSTRAK
DAFTAR ISI
DAFTAR TABEL
DAFTAR GAMBAR
DAFTAR KOTAK
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN
DAFTAR SINGKATAN DAN AKRONIM
RINGKASAN EKSEKUTIF
I. PENDAHULUAN

A. Latar Belakang
B. Tujuan
C. Metodologi
D. Struktur Laporan

II. GAMBARAN UMUM PROVINSI NTT DAN WILAYAH TIMOR BARAT

A. Administrasi Daerah
B. Kondisi Alam dan Infrastruktur Perhubungan
C. Kondisi Sumber Daya Manusia dan Kesejahteraan Masyarakat
D. Kondisi Perekonomian Daerah

III. REGULASI PERDAGANGAN HASIL PERTANIAN DAN PELAKSANAANNYA

A. Kebijakan Deregulasi Nasional dan Reaksi Pemerintah Daerah

1. Periode 1997 - 1999
2. Periode 2000 - sekarang

B. Regulasi Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian di Timor Barat

1. Peraturan Umum terkait Usaha dan Perdagangan
2. Peraturan terkait Perdagangan Produk Pertanian

a. Komoditas Kehutanan
b. Komoditas Peternakan
c. Komoditas Perikanan
d. Komoditas Perkebunan dan Tanaman Pangan
e. Industri Pengolahan Hasil Pertanian

IV. KONDISI PEMASARAN HASIL PERTANIAN

A. Jalur Tata Niaga dan Peranan Pasar (Market Place) dalam Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian
B. Struktur Pasar dan Pembentukan Harga

V. DAMPAK PUNGUTAN TERHADAP PENDAPATAN ASLI DAERAH DAN IKLIM USAHA

A. Dampak terhadap Pendapatan Daerah
B. Dampak terhadap Iklim Usaha

VI. KESIMPULAN DAN REKOMENDASI
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LAMPIRAN


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The findings, views, and interpretations published in this report are those of
the authors and should not be attributed to the SMERU Research Institute
or any of the agencies providing financial support to SMERU.
For further information, please contact SMERU, Phone: 62-21-3193 6336;
Fax: 62-21-3193 0850; E-mail:
smeru@smeru.or.id