Description & Progress
This study investigated factors that are important for fostering movement out of poverty, and the factors that limit the ability of PKH households to move out of poverty.
Program Keluarga Harapan—PKH (the conditional cash transfer program) is scheduled to run for six years or as long as each household still meets the specified requirements. The first recertification survey was conducted in 2013 for all PKH beneficiary households registered in 2007. The survey found that 42.63% of the households can be categorized as 'graduated' from PKH, as they were no longer meet the requirements as program beneficiary. Some have experienced significant economic progress and longer in the very poor bracket. On the other hand, many remain in very poor condition and were still eligible to receive assistance for the next three years. They were categorized as in the ‘transitional' phase of the program. This study investigated factors that are important for fostering movement out of poverty, and the factors that limit the ability of PKH households to move out of poverty.
Methodology and Data
The study adopts qualitative approach with the primary objective of exploring the PKH graduated and transition households’ perceptions and to identify the need for effective coaching and mentoring support to guide the development of a strategy for sustainable impact for the PKH program through the development of Individual Family Development Session (IFDS).
The study used primary data collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and life history interviews with PKH beneficiary households. Informants in this study consisted of PKH beneficiary households, key informants such as program facilitators, and key figures at the subdistrict level who were purposely selected for the interviews. The study was carried out in 14 villages across 12 kabupaten in 7 provinces (DKI Jakarta, West Java, East Java, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, West Sumatra and NTT) during February-March 2015. In total, data collected for this study consists of in-depth interviews with 163 PKH beneficiary household members, 28 life history interviews with graduated and transitional household members, 28 FGDs with graduated and transition households, in-depth interview with 173 key informants, as well as 14 FGDs with key informants. The report was submitted at the end of July 2015.
The research findings demonstrate that the impact of PKH on the lives of target households varies greatly, and is strongly connected to the capacity of the households in utilizing the funds that they receive. These differences in capacity are caused by a number of internal and external factors which affects their financial management capacity. Thus, empowerment activities must be attuned to the progression and readiness of each PKH transition beneficiary. The effectiveness of empowerment programs is heavily reliant on, among other things, coaching and mentoring designed for PKH beneficiaries; the strength of coordination between institutions involved in the implementation of PKH, including monitoring and evaluation; attempts to involve men (husbands) in the empowerment programs; and the strength of implementing actors, primarily facilitators.